Este es el texto en Inglés a traducir en el exámen del año 2009.
Puedes acceder a la versión oficial traducida por la propia Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones (ITU) en este enlace
II.1.3 Traditional crime and cybercrime
Cybercrime is the natural extension of ordinary criminal activity. Today, criminal acts are committed across cyberspace, using non-conventional means in a manner that is complementary to ordinary
The internet not only provides ideal conditions for new illegal projects and activities, but also makes
possible variations on fraud and other crimes by means of computer.
The internet makes it easy to find and exploit new means of making money. This empowering feature
is, naturally, not lost on the criminal world. By embracing IT, criminals hope to increase their
winnings while minimizing their exposure to risk.
II.1.4 Cybercrime, economic crime and money-laundering
Economic crime via the internet is not limited to organized crime. Modern information and
communication technologies allow isolated individuals to engage in economic crime, either working
alone or in concert with groups of various sizes formed for the purpose.
Criminals can organize themselves around the exchange of information, thanks to the use of IT.
Networks can bring together individuals and expertise to organize a virtual criminal gang
Given the high degree of economic expertise and skills that economic crime requires, it is an obvious
candidate for “improvement” by means of modern IT.
The internet contributes to the acquisition of information and the knowledge of markets, laws,
technology, etc. that are needed to commit economic crimes. It can also be used to prospect for
Economic crime is influenced by new technologies, which become part of the criminals’ repertoire
and place information at the heart of their strategies and decision-making processes.
New technologies can facilitate theft of all kinds, tampering, information sabotage and fraud.
Blackmail, extortion, protection rackets and ransom demands have all made move leap to the internet.
Information resources in effect become potential hostages of the cybercriminals. Blackmailers have
shifted their operations to cyberspace, and anyone may suddenly find themselves the victim of
attempted blackmail, disinformation or propaganda attempts. Furthermore, the explosion in identity
theft since 2003 shows that the benefits of anonymity that the internet affords, and the use of false
identities to avoid prosecution or criminal and terrorist responsibility, have not been lost on criminals.
Identity theft, readily performed via the internet, is a factor in illicit activities.
Like all criminals who exploit the existing technical infrastructures, money-launderers increasingly
use the internet in order to take money that is generated by criminal activities such as drug trafficking,
arms smuggling, corruption, prostitution, child abuse, tax fraud, etc. and move it into the domain of
Although it is greatly under-reported and frequently invisible, money-laundering via the internet is
increasingly popular. The internet is an ideal vehicle, thanks to its virtual nature (anonymity,
cyberspace, speed of transfer) and its freedom of territorial constraints (cross-border nature,
conflicting competence and jurisdictions), which money-laundering agents have learned to exploit.
The internet makes it possible to channel monies of criminal origin into legitimate economic circuits
using money transfers, investment and capitalization
Online investment, gambling and commerce, such as the sale of imaginary goods and services for real
money, make it possible to generate seemingly legitimate revenues that are difficult to monitor and
almost impossible to prosecute. E-banking, real-estate transactions via the net, the use of virtual front
companies and electronic cash can all be used to launder the proceeds of crime. Ordinary users may
unknowingly support money-laundering when they use certain virtual services. Commercial
organizations may also unwittingly become involved, with all the – potentially disastrous–
implications that entails, in legal and commercial terms. This is a major source of risk for companies.
Currently there are few effective means of controlling the phenomenon of IT-enabled money-